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Comprehensive Guide to Surgical Sutures 🪡 : Regulatory Insights, Standards, and Clinical Evidence

Device Overview: Surgical Sutures

Surgical sutures are a fundamental component of medical practice, crucial for wound closure, tissue approximation, and securing medical devices. They play a vital role in promoting healing and minimizing infection risk.

Surgical Sutures in Ancient History

The origins of surgical sutures can be traced back to ancient India, where advanced medical practices were developed and documented long before the advent of modern medicine. Indian medical science, particularly the disciplines of surgery and healing, was highly sophisticated and systematically practiced since the Vedic period. Two prominent ancient Indian scientists, Sushruta and Charaka, made significant contributions to the development of surgical techniques, including the use of sutures.


Sushruta: The Father of Surgery

Sushruta, often referred to as the "Father of Surgery," is credited with numerous pioneering contributions to surgical techniques and tools. His seminal work, the "Sushruta Samhita," written around the 6th century BCE, is one of the earliest comprehensive texts on surgery. It details a variety of surgical procedures, including the use of sutures to close wounds. Sushruta described various suture materials, including plant fibers, animal tendons, and hair, as well as different suture techniques for optimal wound closure and healing.

Charaka: The Master of Medicine

Charaka, another towering figure in ancient Indian medicine, authored the "Charaka Samhita," a foundational text on internal medicine and pharmacology. While Charaka's focus was more on the medicinal and therapeutic aspects of healthcare, his work also included discussions on the treatment of wounds and the importance of proper surgical techniques, including suturing. The combined knowledge of Sushruta and Charaka laid the groundwork for a holistic approach to medical science, integrating surgery with medicine for comprehensive patient care.

Contributions to Surgical Sutures

  • Innovative Techniques: Sushruta described advanced surgical techniques, including the use of various suturing methods for different types of tissues and wounds. His contributions laid the foundation for modern surgical practices.
  • Material Use: The ancient Indian texts mention the use of natural materials such as silk, linen, and animal sinews for suturing, showcasing an understanding of material properties and their interaction with biological tissues.
  • Holistic Approach: The integration of surgery with medicinal treatments, as seen in the works of Sushruta and Charaka, emphasized the importance of post-surgical care and the role of sutures in preventing infections and promoting healing.
  • Detailed Documentation: The meticulous documentation of surgical procedures and the role of sutures in ancient Indian medical texts provided a rich knowledge base that influenced later medical practices both in India and globally.
The ancient Indian contributions to surgical sutures highlight a rich legacy of medical innovation and expertise. The pioneering work of scientists like Sushruta and Charaka set the stage for advancements in surgical techniques that continue to benefit modern medicine. Their holistic approach, detailed documentation, and innovative use of materials for suturing reflect the depth and sophistication of ancient Indian medical science.

Types of Surgical Sutures

Surgical sutures can be classified into several categories based on their characteristics and applications:

  1. Absorbable Sutures: These sutures are designed to be broken down by the body over time and do not require removal. They are commonly used for internal tissues and organs.
    • Examples: Polyglycolic acid (PGA), Polyglactin (Vicryl), Polydioxanone (PDS).
  2. Non-Absorbable Sutures: These sutures are not absorbed by the body and need to be removed after the wound has sufficiently healed. They are typically used for skin closure and external applications.
    • Examples: Silk, Nylon, Polypropylene (Prolene).
  3. Monofilament Sutures: Made from a single strand of material, these sutures are less prone to harboring bacteria and cause minimal tissue reaction.
    • Examples: Nylon, Polypropylene.
  4. Multifilament Sutures: Consisting of multiple strands twisted or braided together, these sutures offer greater tensile strength and flexibility but may increase the risk of infection.
    • Examples: Silk, Polyester.
  5. Barbed Sutures: These innovative sutures have barbs that eliminate the need for knots, providing even tension distribution and faster wound closure.
    • Examples: V-Loc, Quill.

Materials Used in Surgical Sutures

The choice of suture material depends on the specific clinical requirements and the tissue type being sutured. Common materials include:

  1. Natural Materials: Derived from biological sources.
    • Examples: Silk, Catgut (derived from sheep or bovine intestines).
  2. Synthetic Materials: Man-made polymers offering consistent performance and reduced tissue reaction.
    • Examples: Polyglycolic acid (PGA), Polyglactin (Vicryl), Polydioxanone (PDS), Nylon, Polypropylene (Prolene).

Regulatory Overview of Surgical Sutures

Risk Classification

Type of Device 

Non Active, Implantable Device


Class C  (Medium Risk)


Class III (Medium Risk)

EU Union

Class IIb (Medium Risk)

United Kingdom

Class IIb (Medium Risk)

Harmonized Standards

ISO 13485

Quality management systems - Requirements for regulatory purposes

ISO 14971

Application of risk management to medical devices

ISO 20416

Post-market surveillance for manufacturers

ISO 20417

Information to be supplied by the manufacturer

ISO 9626

Stainless steel needle tubing for the manufacture of medical devices - Requirements and test methods.

ISO 10993

Biological evaluation of medical devices

ISO 11135

Sterilization of health care products - Ethylene oxide - Requirements for the development, validation and routine control of a sterilization process for medical devices.

ISO 11137

Sterilization of health care products - Radiation - Requirements for development, validation, and routine control of a sterilization process for medical devices.

ISO 11607-1

Packaging for terminally sterilized medical devices - Part 1: Requirements for materials, sterile barrier systems, and packaging systems.

ISO 11607-2

Packaging for terminally sterilized medical devices - Part 2: Validation requirements for forming, sealing, and assembly processes.

Labeling and Labeling Requirements

ISO 15223

Symbols to be used with information to be supplied by the manufacturer

Chapter VI, MDR-2017

Labeling Requirements (India)

Regulatory Pathways and Approvals


Manufacturing/Import/Loan License under Medical Device Rules 2017


Conformité Européene (CE) Marking, Medical Device Regulation 2017/745


510(k) clearance, Premarket Approval (PMA)

Clinical Evidence

Clinical evidence means, in relation to a medical device, the clinical data and the clinical evaluation report that supports the scientific validity and performance for its intended use.

Clinical Use

Surgical sutures play a crucial role in a wide range of medical procedures, ensuring that tissues are properly secured and healing is facilitated. Here is a detailed look at how sutures are used across various surgical disciplines:

  1. General Surgery:
    • Closing Incisions: Sutures are used to close surgical incisions made during procedures like appendectomies, hernia repairs, and bowel resections. The choice of suture material and technique depends on the location and depth of the incision.
    • Securing Tissues: During operations, tissues may need to be held in place temporarily or permanently. Sutures provide the necessary support to keep tissues aligned, ensuring proper healing.
    • Ligating Blood Vessels: Sutures are used to tie off blood vessels to control bleeding during surgery. This is critical in preventing blood loss and maintaining a clear surgical field.
  2. Orthopedic Surgery:
    • Repairing Tendons and Ligaments: Sutures are essential in orthopedic procedures for reattaching torn tendons and ligaments. These structures require strong, durable sutures that can withstand tension and movement.
    • Bone Repairs: While bones themselves are not sutured, the periosteum (a dense layer of vascular connective tissue enveloping the bones) and surrounding soft tissues are often sutured to ensure proper alignment and healing of fractures.
  3. Cardiovascular Surgery:
    • Suturing Blood Vessels: Precision suturing is required to repair or reconstruct blood vessels during procedures like coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or vascular grafts. The sutures must be fine and strong to prevent leakage and ensure patency.
    • Heart Tissues: Sutures are used to close incisions in the heart, repair heart valves, and attach pacemakers or other devices. The materials used must be biocompatible and capable of withstanding the constant motion of the heart.
  4. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery:
    • Closing Skin and Subcutaneous Tissues: Sutures are used to close incisions made during cosmetic procedures, such as facelifts, breast augmentations, and tummy tucks. They help ensure minimal scarring and optimal aesthetic outcomes.
    • Reshaping Body Parts: In reconstructive surgery, such as after mastectomies or trauma, sutures are used to secure skin grafts, flaps, and implants, aiding in the restoration of form and function.
  5. Gynecological Surgery:
    • Suturing Tissues: During procedures like hysterectomies, cesarean sections, and pelvic organ prolapse repairs, sutures are used to close incisions, secure anatomical structures, and support weakened tissues.
  6. Ophthalmic Surgery:
    • Closing Incisions: Delicate sutures are required to close incisions made during eye surgeries such as cataract removal, corneal transplants, and glaucoma surgery. These sutures must be very fine to minimize tissue reaction and promote healing.
    • Securing Tissues: In surgeries involving the eyelids or conjunctiva, sutures help maintain the proper positioning of tissues, ensuring optimal healing and functionality.

Clinical Evaluation of Sutures

The clinical evaluation of sutures is an essential process to ensure their safety, efficacy, and suitability for various surgical procedures. This evaluation involves several key aspects, including preclinical studies, clinical trials, and post-market surveillance.

Preclinical studies are conducted to assess the basic properties of sutures, such as tensile strength, flexibility, and biocompatibility. These studies often involve laboratory tests and animal models to understand how sutures behave in different tissue types and conditions. Key evaluations in this phase include:
  • Tensile Strength: Measuring the force required to break the suture, ensuring it is strong enough to hold tissues together during the healing process.
  • Knot Security: Assessing the suture's ability to maintain secure knots without slipping.
  • Biocompatibility: Evaluating the body's reaction to the suture material to ensure it does not cause adverse reactions such as inflammation or allergic responses.
During the clinical evaluation process, several critical criteria are assessed to determine the suitability of sutures for different surgical applications. These criteria include:
  • Healing Time: Evaluating how sutures influence the time it takes for tissues to heal.
  • Tissue Reaction: Observing the body's response to the suture material, including any signs of irritation, inflammation, or rejection.
  • Suture Longevity: Assessing how long absorbable sutures remain functional before being absorbed by the body and ensuring non-absorbable sutures maintain their integrity over time.
  • Patient Outcomes: Measuring the overall impact of sutures on patient outcomes, including the incidence of infections, scar formation, and the need for re-suturing or additional interventions.

Safety and Evaluation of Surgical Sutures

The safety and evaluation of devices are of paramount importance in healthcare settings to ensure the well-being of patients during surgical and medical procedures.

USP Size Guide of Sutures

The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) has established a standardized system for sizing surgical sutures, ensuring consistency and reliability across various medical applications. The size of a suture is indicated by a number of zeros, with larger numbers indicating smaller diameters. Here is a comprehensive table showing the USP suture sizes along with their approximate diameters:

USP Size Diameter (mm) Common Applications
11-0 0.010 - 0.019 Microvascular and ophthalmic surgery
10-0 0.020 - 0.029 Microvascular and ophthalmic surgery
9-0 0.030 - 0.039 Ophthalmic and delicate vascular procedures
8-0 0.040 - 0.049 Ophthalmic, neurosurgery, and small vessel repair
7-0 0.050 - 0.069 Vascular grafts and anastomoses
6-0 0.070 - 0.099 General, cardiovascular, and plastic surgery
5-0 0.100 - 0.149 Skin closure, general surgery, and vascular repair
4-0 0.150 - 0.199 General and orthopedic surgery, skin closure
3-0 0.200 - 0.249 General and orthopedic surgery, muscle repair
2-0 0.300 - 0.339 Fascia closure, large vessel repair
0 0.350 - 0.399 Fascia closure, large vessel repair
1 0.400 - 0.499 Orthopedic and general surgery
2 0.500 - 0.599 Tendon repair, high tension areas
3 0.600 - 0.699 Orthopedic procedures requiring strong sutures
4 0.700 - 0.799 Orthopedic procedures requiring strong sutures
5 0.800 - 0.899 Orthopedic procedures requiring strong sutures

  • Smaller Sizes (7-0 to 11-0): Used for delicate surgeries, such as in ophthalmic, microvascular, and neurosurgical procedures, where minimal tissue reaction and high precision are critical.
  • Intermediate Sizes (3-0 to 6-0): Commonly used for skin closure, general surgical procedures, and vascular repairs, providing a balance between strength and minimal tissue trauma.
  • Larger Sizes (0 to 5): Utilized in high-tension areas such as orthopedic surgeries, tendon repairs, and fascia closures where robust strength is necessary.

Design of Surgical Sutures with Needle

The design of sutures with needles is a critical aspect that significantly influences the effectiveness and ease of surgical procedures. Sutures are typically attached to needles, which are engineered to ensure precise tissue penetration and minimal trauma. Key design features of sutures with needles include the needle's shape, size, and the type of point, each tailored to specific surgical needs.

Needles can be curved or straight, with the curvature ranging from 1/4 to 5/8 of a circle, allowing surgeons to maneuver through various tissue types and anatomical structures. The needle point can be cutting, tapering, or blunt, depending on whether the surgery involves tough tissues like skin and tendons or delicate structures like internal organs. Cutting needles, for instance, have sharp edges to penetrate tough tissues, whereas taper needles have a smooth point that spreads tissues without cutting, ideal for softer tissues.

The attachment of the suture to the needle is another critical factor. Swaged needles, where the suture is permanently attached to the needle, are preferred because they create a smooth transition between needle and suture, reducing tissue drag and trauma. The suture material itself must be chosen based on its tensile strength, flexibility, and biocompatibility to ensure it meets the specific requirements of the surgical procedure and promotes optimal healing.

Additionally, ergonomics play a vital role in the design of surgical needles and sutures. Needles are often designed to be grasped easily with surgical instruments, ensuring that they provide a comfortable grip and precise control for the surgeon. This ergonomic design helps in reducing fatigue during lengthy procedures and increases the accuracy of suturing, thereby improving surgical outcomes.

Needle Features Description Applications
Shape Curved or straight needles, curvature ranging from 1/4 to 5/8 of a circle Curved needles for maneuvering through various tissues
 .  . Straight needles for precise penetration
Size Varies based on surgical needs Larger needles for tougher tissues (e.g., skin, tendons)
 .  . Smaller needles for delicate structures (e.g., internal organs)
Type of Point Cutting, tapering, or blunt Cutting needles for tough tissues
 .  . Taper needles for softer tissues
Attachment Method Swaged (suture permanently attached) or eyed (suture threaded through eye of needle) Swaged needles for smooth transition and reduced tissue trauma
 .  . Eyed needles for versatility and customization

Recent advancements in suture technology have focused on improving patient outcomes, reducing infection risks, and enhancing ease of use for surgeons. Here are some novel features that have been developed:

Innovation Description Benefits Examples Applications
Antibacterial Sutures Sutures coated with antimicrobial agents like triclosan or chlorhexidine. Reduces risk of surgical site infections (SSIs). Vicryl Plus, Monocryl Plus High-risk infection surgeries (e.g., gastrointestinal).
Biodegradable Sutures Made from materials that degrade naturally over time. Eliminates need for suture removal, reduces patient discomfort. Polyglycolic acid (PGA), Polyglactin (Vicryl), Polydioxanone (PDS) Internal tissue and organ surgeries.
Drug-Eluting Sutures Designed to release therapeutic agents to promote healing and reduce inflammation. Promotes faster healing, reduces inflammation and infection risk. Sutures with incorporated antibiotics or growth factors High-risk patients, infection-prone areas.

Material of Construction of Sutures

The choice of materials for surgical sutures is crucial in ensuring their effectiveness, safety, and suitability for various medical applications. The materials used in sutures are selected based on their physical properties, biocompatibility, and performance characteristics. Here is an overview of commonly used materials:

Natural Materials:
  • Silk: A multifilament suture known for its excellent handling and knot-tying properties. It is non-absorbable and used in situations where long-term support is required.
  • Catgut: Derived from the intestines of sheep or cattle, catgut is an absorbable suture. It is primarily used for internal tissues where gradual absorption is beneficial.

Synthetic Materials:

  • Polyglycolic Acid (PGA): A synthetic absorbable suture with predictable absorption rates, often used in internal tissues where gradual support is needed.
  • Polyglactin (Vicryl): Another absorbable synthetic suture known for its high tensile strength and predictable absorption. It is widely used in soft tissue approximation.
  • Polydioxanone (PDS): A monofilament absorbable suture that provides extended wound support, ideal for internal tissues.
  • Nylon: A non-absorbable synthetic suture with excellent elasticity and minimal tissue reaction, suitable for skin closures.
  • Polypropylene (Prolene): A non-absorbable monofilament suture that offers high tensile strength and minimal tissue reactivity, commonly used in cardiovascular and plastic surgery.

Needle Design and Features

The design and construction of surgical needles are equally important in the effectiveness of sutures. The needle must be capable of penetrating tissues smoothly and precisely, minimizing tissue trauma. Key features and considerations in needle design include:

  • Straight Needles: Used in easily accessible areas or for surface suturing.
  • Curved Needles: Commonly used for deeper tissues, available in various curvature degrees (e.g., 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, and 5/8 circle) to suit different surgical needs.
  • Needles come in various lengths and diameters to match the specific requirements of the surgical procedure and the thickness of the tissue being sutured.
Point Type:
  • Taper Point: Smooth, round-bodied needle with a gradual taper to a point, used for soft tissues to minimize trauma.
  • Cutting Point: Features a triangular cross-section with sharp edges, ideal for tougher tissues such as skin.
  • Reverse Cutting Point: Similar to cutting needles but with the cutting edge on the outer curvature, reducing the risk of cutting through tissues.
  • Surgical needles are typically made from stainless steel, which offers strength, sharpness, and corrosion resistance. Advanced needles may be coated with materials like silicone to enhance their glide through tissues.
  • Swaged Needles: The suture material is permanently attached to the needle, reducing tissue trauma and providing a smooth passage through tissues. 
  • Eyed Needles: Feature an eye through which the suture is threaded, commonly used in situations where repeated use of the needle is required.

Material Type Description Examples
Natural Materials Derived from biological sources. Silk, Catgut (derived from sheep or bovine intestines)
Synthetic Materials Man-made polymers offering consistent performance and reduced tissue reaction. Polyglycolic acid (PGA), Polyglactin (Vicryl), Polydioxanone (PDS), Nylon, Polypropylene (Prolene)

Category Description Examples
Absorbable Sutures Designed to be broken down by the body over time and do not require removal. Used for internal tissues. Polyglycolic acid (PGA), Polyglactin (Vicryl), Polydioxanone (PDS)
Non-Absorbable Sutures Not absorbed by the body; need removal after healing. Used for skin closure and external applications. Silk, Nylon, Polypropylene (Prolene)
Monofilament Sutures Made from a single strand of material; less prone to harboring bacteria and cause minimal tissue reaction. Nylon, Polypropylene
Multifilament Sutures Consist of multiple strands twisted or braided together; offer greater tensile strength and flexibility but may increase infection risk. Silk, Polyester
Barbed Sutures Innovative sutures with barbs that eliminate the need for knots, providing even tension distribution and faster wound closure. V-Loc, Quill

Manufacturing of Surgical Sutures

The manufacturing of surgical sutures involves several steps to ensure that the final product is safe, reliable, and meets stringent medical standards. The process encompasses the preparation of raw materials, the creation of the suture thread, and the attachment of needles, followed by rigorous testing and sterilization. Here is an overview of the key stages involved in the manufacturing of surgical sutures:

1. Material Selection and Preparation

  • Raw Materials: The first step involves selecting high-quality raw materials. For natural sutures, materials like silk or catgut are used. For synthetic sutures, polymers such as polyglycolic acid (PGA), polyglactin (Vicryl), or polydioxanone (PDS) are chosen.
  • Purification: Natural materials undergo purification processes to remove impurities. Synthetic materials are synthesized and purified to achieve the required medical-grade quality.

2. Extrusion and Spinning

  • Extrusion: Synthetic polymers are melted and extruded through spinnerets to form continuous filaments. The diameter of the filament can be adjusted by controlling the extrusion parameters.
  • Spinning: For multifilament sutures, multiple filaments are spun together to form a single thread. The spinning process can be tailored to achieve the desired strength and flexibility.

3. Braiding and Twisting

  • Braiding: Multifilament sutures are braided to enhance their tensile strength and handling characteristics. Braiding patterns can vary to provide different levels of flexibility and knot security.
  • Twisting: In some cases, filaments are twisted rather than braided. Twisting can also improve the suture’s strength and flexibility.

4. Coating

  • Lubrication and Antibacterial Coating: Sutures may be coated with materials like silicone to reduce tissue drag and improve handling. Antibacterial coatings, such as triclosan, can be applied to prevent infections.

5. Needle Attachment

  • Swaging: Needles are attached to sutures through a process called swaging, where the suture material is inserted into a channel at the base of the needle and then securely crimped. This ensures a strong, seamless connection between the suture and needle.
  • Eyed Needles: For eyed needles, the suture is threaded through the eye of the needle, typically used for specialized applications or reusable sutures.

6. Sterilization

7. Quality Control and Testing

  • Tensile Strength Testing: Sutures are tested for tensile strength to ensure they meet the required standards for various surgical applications.
  • Knot Security Testing: The ability of the suture to hold secure knots is tested to prevent postoperative complications.
  • Biocompatibility Testing: Sutures undergo biocompatibility testing to ensure they do not cause adverse reactions when implanted in the body.
  • EO Residual: After Each Sterilization the samples from each sterilization lot undergo for EO residual testing.
  • Stability Studies: All the devices must undergo Shelf life studies prior to release in the market.

8. Packaging

  • Sterile Packaging: Sutures are packaged in sterile conditions to maintain their sterility until they are used. Packaging materials are designed to protect the sutures from physical damage and contamination.
  • Labeling: Each package is labeled with information about the suture type, size, material, expiration date, and sterilization method.

Note: The Device Classification and applicable regulatory pathways may vary of deviate depending upon the features (Novel, multipara etc.) and interaction of the device have with patient or indication for use.

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